Unless otherwise stated, the shown objects are reproductions of the original state. If features such as color, object parts etc. were added by us it is noted.


Tirgatao The name “Tirgatao”

Sauromatians and early Sarmatians were culturally closely linked. They were divided each into different tribes, which names are not completely passed on today, as the sparse information ancient authors do not name all factions to summarize them as “Sarmatian” or “Sauromatian”.
read on...

A far west settling tribe of Sauromatians which was located on the lower Don and the banks of Maeotis, was handed down as Ixomats / Iazamats. Polyaneus reported that there was a Ixomatian queen called Tirgatao in the early 4th century BC.

Literature:
Wamers, E. und D. Stutzinger (Hg.):
Steppengold. Grabschätze der Skythen und Sarmaten am unteren Don, 26-33.


k-tigatao-helm (1) Helmet (Sauromatian; Nikol’skoe, 4th century BC)

In the nomadic graves of the Scythian area we stumble consistently on ancient helmets which have been modified for the mounted combat technique. This also applies to the bronze helmet from the original Corinthian type whose nasal and cheeks had been sawed off and replaced on the side of the helmet by flexible scale mesh.
read on...

The shape of the neck-byrnie and the cheeks is no longer detectable because only a pile of bronze plates of 2×1.8cm was found.

Literature:
Cernenko, E.V.:
Die Schutzwaffen der Skythen, 95.


Panzerguertel Mail Belt (Scythian; Igren’, 4th century BC)

With elongated iron or bronze scales studded belts were a popular addition to the arms of Scythian nomads. They could vary greatly in the level of the individual scales and could be very broad as an independent armor object. This belt was originally made of 1 x 3.5 cm large bronze plates and had also semi-oval end pieces and perforated center plates, with which the belt could be closed and provided with straps for attachment.

read on...
Literature:
Cernenko, E.V.: Die Schutzwaffen der Skythen, 77 f.


Schuppenpanzer Scale Armor (Early Sarmatian; Filippovka I Kurgan 4; 5th/4th century BC)

This scale armor comes from a 2006 investigated grave of an early Sarmatian princess. The fund was heavily corroded, but by the position of the individual scales the shape could be reconstructed. In addition it consists of two large shoulder plates, which have not been built by us yet.
During the reconstruction of the armor we have, as far as possible, recourse to detectable materials: leather as an underlay, goatskin for the hem and different scales in the found quantities with corresponding holes.
read on...

For the seams an artificial tendon was used. The scales overlap of about a third and are sewn in every other row on a separate strip of leather.

Heavy armor has been found very rarely in Scythian women’s graves. In the grave of a Scythian girl a full scale armor with belt was found, however, such as, helmet and a back-shield as a supplement. In addition, since anthropological studies failed to research in graves with defensive weapons, because they were considered male burials, the spreading of heavy armor among warring women has not yet been clarified.

Literature:
Treister, M. und L. Yablonsky (Hg.): Einflüsse der achämenidischen Kultur auf das südliche Uralvorland Bd. II, 105f.
Historisches Museum der Pfalz Speyer (Hg.):Amazonen. Geheimnisvolle Kriegerinnen, 153-159.


Beinschienen Greaves (Scythian; Nymphaion grave 6; 4th century BC)

Also greaves were made in for nomads typical shed construction as those armor originally made of bronze show. The individual, elongated scales are turned up on the edge and secured in three horizontal lines with wire staples on the leather pad. The greaves are short and end a few inches below the knee.
read on...

It is interesting that at the relatively well preserved finds no indication of an attachment mechanism for fixing on the leg, such as a belt, was found. Therefore we decided to provide them with long straps that are several times wrapped around the leg and greave similar to Japanese greaves.

Literature:
Vickers, M.:Scythian and Thracian antiquities, 46 f.


Goryt Goryt, bow and arrows

The bow was since ancient times to modern times, the most feared and most powerful weapon of the Eurasian mounted warriors. The Scythian nomads knew several sizes of composite reflex bows. Arrows in customized length were shot and were generally provided with three bladed bronze tips of different shapes. The arrows could be poisoned and its shafts have colorful paintings.

read on...

Tucked were bow and arrows in a combined bag, called goryt which was rear facing worn on the left side of the body. This piece of equipment can be seen on countless works of Scythian toreutics.

Literatur::
Rolle, R., Müller-Wille, M. und K. Schietzel (Hg.):Gold der Steppe. Archäologie der Ukraine, 143-149.

 


Speer Spear (Early Sarmatian; Filippovka I Kurgan 4; 5.th/4.th century BC)

Spears were a favorite weapon of mounted warriors, that you could be used from horseback for pushing or throwing. According to often be found spearheads in Scythian tombs of the entire steppe belt – even in those so-called “Amazons”. They are usually in sheet form with a rhombic cross-section, about 30 cm long and made of iron.
read on...

In an early Sarmatian grave also a spear shoe made of silver was found, which is in our case a tip of iron.

Literature:
Treister, M. und L. Yablonsky (Hg.):Einflüsse der achämenidischen Kultur auf das südliche Uralvorland Bd. II, 105.


Akinakes Akinakes (Frühsarmatisch; Novyi Kumak; 4. Jh. v. d. Z.)

Double-edged short swords were popular melee weapons of Scythian nomads and far spread over the whole steppe. Usually they were made entirely of iron and were usually carried in a wooden sheath with characteristic suspension on the belt. The short swords appear from today’s perspective very small and were generally not longer than 30 to 50 cm, but they were often used as stabbing weapons in the melee.
read on...

A handle made of red leather and the wooden scabbard was added by us, which may have been present at the original find, but have passed.

Literature:
Sulimirski, T.:The Sarmatians, 87.


Skalps Scalps

The Scythian nomads apparently had different customs of war, which were based primarily on the attainment of trophies of different parts of the body of the enemy (scalp, skin, hands, jaws et al). Not only in reports of Herodotus, but also in the archaeological record these customs reflect. According to Herodotus Sauromatian women first had to slain an enemy, until they were allowed to marry – after Pseudo-Hippocrates there were even three enemies.
read on...

This anecdote we have taken and therefore secured two scalps on spear of the Early Sarmatian-Sauromatian Female Warrior.

Literature:
Pseudo-Hippokrates:De aeribus aquis locis (17).


Peitsche-Greif Whip (Scythian(?); Berdjanskij)

According to Herodotus the whip was a prestige emblem of Scythian aristocracy and was also used at work with the herds, the punishing of slaves and used as a weapon.
Whips of different shapes are proofed by pictorial representations and by archaeological finds of handle fragments. This whip handle in wolf-head-shape was found in Berdjanskij at the Sea of Azov and had blue paint remains, which led us to a colored reconstruction.

read on...
Literature:
Historisches Museum der Pfalz Speyer (Hg.): Amazonen. Geheimnisvolle Kriegerinnen, 155 f.


Schale Bowl (Early Sarmatian; Filippovka I Kurgan 15; 5th/4th century BC)

From Scythian and Sarmatian context many golden fittings are known that were originally attached to wooden bowls, which have passed over time. Probably this type of vessels had a ritual function because according to Herodotus bowls had a mythical significance for nomads and were brought in conjunction with the monarchy.
read on...

Even in the finds of Filippovka I only the golden fittings could be discovered. We decided to reconstruct a red painted wooden bowl to attatch the fittings at, as the red color is commonly associated with finds of wooden fragments.

Literature:
Treister, M. und L. Yablonsky (Hg.): Einflüsse der achämenidischen Kultur auf das südliche Uralvorland Bd. II, 137.
Rolle, R., Müller-Wille, M. und K. Schietzel (Hg.):Gold der Steppe. Archäologie der Ukraine, 153-156.


Guertelschnalle Buckle made of bone (Early Sarmatian; Pokrovka; 4th – 2thcentury BC)

Buckles are frequently encountered in the tombs as the only non-passed components of nomadic dress. Most often they are made of metal (iron, silver, bronze, gold), but now and then there are also examples of organic material. The buckle shown here is a good example for clothing items from graves of simple Scythian nomadic population which are rarely published.

read on...
Literature:
Davis-Kimball, J. und L. T. Yablonsky:
Kurgans on the Left Bank of the Ilek. Excavations at Pokrovka, 80f.


Schleifstein Whetstone (Early Sarmatian; Pokrovka; 4th – 2thcentury BC)

Utensils for the nomadic life that were constantly in use one was always carrying by fastening to the belt. Whetstones were important utensils you accordingly often found in Scythian graves of men and women. Usually they have a hole at the top, which made it possible to provide the stone with a loop and to fasten it at the belt.

read on...
Literature:
Davis-Kimball, J. und L. T. Yablonsky:
Kurgans on the Left Bank of the Ilek. Excavations at Pokrovka, 62.


Eberhauer Boar-Tusk-Amulet (Sauromatian or Early Sarmatian; 6th – 4th century BC)

A special item in early Sarmatian and Sauromatian burials are tusk-shaped pendants made of bone, antler or tusk. They have some complex decoration in Animal Style and are found in connection with weapons and horse trappings, on which they seem to have been fixed. Maybe they had a function as amulet or talisman.

read on...
Literature:
Sulimirski, T.:
The Sarmatians, 37f.


Messer Knife (Early Sarmatian; Kyryk-Oba II; 5th century BC)

Knifes are often found in many Scythian tombs. This antler-handle has a beautiful Animal Style decor, but the blade is no longer obtained. The handle has on one side a wolf’s head with forelegs and on the other side boars. Following Sakan finds the plastic cavities were filled with red paint.
A knife sheath was not found in Kyryk-Oba II, but gold pads of the same shape as they are used here.
read on...

Literature:
Stöllner, T. und Z. Samašev (Hg.):
Unbekanntes Kasachstan. Archäologie im Herzen Asiens, Bd. II, 772.
Treister, M. und L. Yablonsky:
Einflüsse der achämenidischen Kultur auf das südliche Uralvorland Bd. II, 38.


Video with the Female Warrior.

read on...